Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Symptoms and Treatment » Health and Fitness 2023 (2023)

Rocky Mountains-Fleckfieber (RMSF)Rocky-Mountain-Fleckfieber) It's atick-borne bacterial disease.Rickettsia rickettsiiIt is the organism that causes the infection, a gram-negative coccobacillus endemic to Central, North, and South America (particularly the northeastern United States).

The number of people affectedR. rickettsiihave increased in recent years. In the United States, 495 cases were registered in the year 2000, while this number increased to 6,248 in 2017. In addition, since it is very difficult to perform reliable serological tests, in many cases it is not entirely clear what the causative agent is.

The first symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are accompanied by severe headache and high fevera rash on the wrists and knees.If you want to know everything about this infectious pathology, keep reading.

What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is defined as a febrile bacterial infection caused by the bacteriumRickettsia rickettsiiand transmitted by several species of ticks (amblyom,Dermazentorand other). Its treatment is simple, but in initial stagesIf not engaged, it has an 80% kill rate.

OCenters for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) report a series of very interesting data to understand the nature and prevalence of the disease in the United States:

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) has been a nationally reported condition in this country since the 1920s.
  • Hoy,all RMSF type conditions are placed in the same category:Typhoid rickettsiosis (SFR). Since they cannot be distinguished serologically, RMSF, rickettsiosis exanthematous,Rickettsia parkerand tick fever on the Pacific coast.
  • The mortality rate of these rickettsioses is 0.5% of all cases,Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the deadliest. In RMSF, about 10% of clinical cases are fatal.
  • These pathologies manifest themselves in every month of the year, but the seasonality is especially pronounced in the months of May to August.

On average, it is estimated between 500 and 2,500 infections in the countryR. rickettsiiannually, but only in 20% of cases, tick-borne pathogens are detected. Fortunately, although the number of cases has increased exponentially, thanks to the use of appropriate drugs, the mortality rate is lower.

(Video) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Bacteria, Signs & Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Read more: Ticks as disease vectors

Causes of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

To understand the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, we must dissect both the bacterium and the vector.Both are essential for disease transmission.for human

about bacteria

the bacteriaRickettsia rickettsiiIt is a gram-negative parasitic intracellular microorganism.It is one of the most pathogenic members of the genus.Rickettsieand has a significant incidence in the Western Hemisphere.

According to the portalStatistics Accounts,Once inside the host, the bacteria invade the interior of the endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels and capillaries. This leads to widespread inflammation, loss of biological function of internal barriers, and dysfunctional vascular permeability throughout the body.

The bacteria can colonize organs such as the brain, skin, and heart.through the bloodstream. For all these reasons, the pathogen is considered deadly, especially in elderly and immunocompromised patients.

about the tick

The check mark is a vector, that is, it acts as a transport vehicle that allows the bacterium to enter the host's bloodstream. The main invertebrates carriers of this pathogen areDermacentor-Variable,dermacentor andersonimiSpiphalus of Bloody Rice.

(Video) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever video

According to the Mayo Clinic,The tick must remain on the host's skin for a relatively short period of time to transmit the disease. Unlike other pathologies caused by bites, it only takes a few hours to attack, although it is normal for 6 to 10 hours to pass.

It is estimated that 1-3% of ticks in the most abundant areas have the bacteria inside. As,This pathology is considered rare., since not all punctures lead to the manifestation of the clinical picture. The falls increase exponentially in summer, when these invertebrates are at their peak of activity.

Symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

As indicated byMSD Manuals,Symptoms appear 3 to 12 days after a tick bite.. Due to the time interval between the event and the development of clinical symptoms, many patients do not remember the first bite, making diagnostic investigation even more difficult.

After a few days, symptoms such as high fever and severe headaches appear. Between the first and sixth day of fever, the famous red rashes appear on the hands, ankles, feet and forearms.Petechiae, which result from extravasation of red blood cells when a capillary is damaged, are also common..

Reduced cardiovascular permeability and widespread inflammation lead to central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Strong headaches, general confusion and cardiovascular instability are typical signs of this pathology.

possible complications

As indicated byUnited States National Library of Medicineand other sources, complications are very common if the disease is not treated on time.Without treatment, 30 to 80% of patients die.

(Video) Medical Minute: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever & Lyme Disease

Among the most lethal effects of the bacterium, we find the following:

  • dano cerebral:When the bacteria migrate to the brain, what is known as an inflammatory event occurs.encephalitis. It is characterized by headache, fever, fatigue and, in the worst cases, unconsciousness with irreparable tissue damage.
  • heart failure:Remember that bacteria invade the endothelium of blood vessels. This can impede blood flow and lead to clotting problems.
  • Endocarditis:When the bacteria reach the heart, they can cause inflammation in the tissues.

diagnosis and treatment

like we saidit is virtually impossible to differentiate between rickettsioses.For this, blood tests are usually performed on the patient, but this takes several weeks. If Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected, antibiotic treatment is started immediately.

Early action has reduced the mortality rate from 20% to 5% in recent years, making immediate medical attention essential for symptoms. The drug of choice is always doxycycline.

The substance is administered orally when the infection is mild,but the intravenous route is used when the condition is severe. The fever disappears within the first 3 days of starting treatment, although the medicine must be taken for 7 days without exception.

People who have been bitten by a tick but do not have symptoms usually do not receive antibiotics. In any case, it never hurts to report the bite to the healthcare professional.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Symptoms and Treatment » Health and Fitness 2023 (1)

Prevent Rocky Mountain spotted fever

This pathology is considered rare whileonly up to 3% of ticks have the bacteria inside. In any case, there are always some preventive measures that you can take when going to the countryside, such as wearing long clothes, doing a self-exam after a walk or using insect repellent.

(Video) Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) Clinical Training

It is also good to deworm pets at home and occasionally disinfect all surfaces where a dog lives. we rememberBloody Rice Spiphaluscan transmit the disease and this is the typical tick of domestic dogs.

You may be interested: How to Eliminate Fleas and Ticks Naturally?

A disease that can be cured

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is not contagious.and therefore the patient does not require social isolation. With early detection and treatment, the prognosis is very good, with resolution of practically all cases within a maximum of 7 days after doxycycline administration.

Conditions like these reinforce the need for self-care and vigilance when interacting with pets or, failing that, during walks and field activities. It's always a good idea to go with a partner and check for ticks at the end of the day.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Symptoms and Treatments appeared first on altsalute.


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